"Sex workers experience a disproportionately high burden of HIV in Canada and globally, in large part driven by structural factors (such as criminalization, physical and sexual violence, stigma, lack of access to services) that impact sex workers’ vulnerability to HIV. There is growing international evidence of the social and health-related harms that the criminalization of sex work causes. This has increased calls for sex work to be decriminalized in Canada and elsewhere. This article looks at some of the approaches in Canada and globally that help improve sex workers‘ access to HIV prevention and care services in a criminalized environment. Combination HIV prevention approaches, which include structural and community-led responses, have been shown to be critical to an effective HIV response."